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Our Daughter’s Grandpa Santa 

dsc04571         The myth of Christmas has been kept between my daughter and her parents, me and her father for exactly 17 years since she was told about Santa and surprisingly received her first Christmas gifts at age 6 in Beijing.

       At her 6, she just started reading and writing at a primary school in the city. The the-little-onedifference and the freedom outside of kindergarten attracted her. Her eyes kept very busy to catch everything fresh. Her talent on music, arts and drawing grew rapidly. Her curiosity about the world around her was accumulated almost out of control: 15 days after she had enrolled into the primary school, she skipped school with one of her classmates during lunch time. They spent the whole afternoon in a public garden nearby and did not tell anyone  (I believe it was well-planned by the two girls). After she was satisfied with the answer to her question, from where she had been dropped to the world, she asked closely how she went into my body and stayed there for such long time without any complaining. There were tons of other questions about these and those in her little mind……We could tell this via her shiny and blinking eyes.

       How could we regulate her sudden growth and the endless requests in order to let our little girl absorb and sort out the freshness she met challenging and joyful with a balanced rate? At that time, I was working hard on English improvement by studying traditions, customs, people and history, including Christmas, mixed with or related to the language. Why didn’t we introduce Santa to her life, which would certainly extract her additional interest, and also create some connection between the lovely old-man and her learning year round? It was also the time that Christmas was not as well-heard or well-talked about as it is in China now (It is still not identified as an official celebrating holiday in the country). So it was good to let her know.

       One night, two weeks before the Christmas in 1991, our daughter learned about Christmas and Santa the first time. She was extremely lured by what we told her and believed the unbelievable myth. We did not have fireplace or chimney, so decided to hang a bag on our balcony to make Santa’s delivery conveniently. She loved the kind and beard old-man who always HoHoHo and brings surprise to children and she insisted on calling him “Grandpa Santa ” after the first time she mis-heard it as Grandpa (姥爷) instead of Old man (老人) that ususally Chinese people call Santa  “Oldman” Santa. She also had been behaving very well since Santa Claus was coming to town.

       However, one day she showed me her worry about the Christmas gifts. She asked: “Mom, does Grandpa Santa mind if there is something wrong with my homework?” “What’s up with your homework, my sweet?” I asked her. “Mom, is 5-3=2 right?” I said: “Yes.” “Why did Teacher Hu (a mid-age kind lady, the teacher in the class our daughter stayed) still mark an “X” (means incorrect) beside my answer “2” that I have written twice?” “Show Mom your numbers, please.” When I saw her 5-3=2, I could not help, but burst out laughing. She wrote “2” backwards, no wonder why Teacher Hu gave her “X” again and again, and no matter how many times she corrected, the “2” was consistently written in reverse. “Oh, my dear and poor daughter, you made such lovely and funny mistake that Grandpa Santa would enjoy it very much, I am sure!”

       On the Christmas Eve, after having seriously hung a bag on the balcony, she went to bed unwillingly. Once making sure that she was asleep, her father and I were as quiet as if two cats walking on the toes to finish Santa Claus’s job. Next morning, she got up much earlier than usual. In a half way of waking up, she smiled secretly and tiptoed cautiously towards the balcony with both hope and uncertainty. I saw her searched and then she fully woke up when touched something in the bag: “Mom, Dad come here, Grandpa Santa really visited us last night and left me gifts!” Her little voice raised up, “Look! A pencil box with pencils, a ruler and an eraser in it, a pencil sharpener. Oh wait, there are two bars of chocolate, too!” She felt extremely different on that school day because she was the only one in the class, or in the school who received amazing gifts from Grandpa Santa.

       Next year, we again prepared for her Christmas gifts one of which had bigger size than last year, so I asked her to hang a bigger bag on the balcony. In the morning, she absolutely found her Christmas gifts which fit the bag perfectly. She smiled and was excited as last time, but her eyes this time filled with questions: “How did you know, Mom that I needed a bigger bag for the gifts?” dsc04572

       With our girl’s growth, the gifts from her Grandpa Christmas  have become bigger and more expensive, from pencils, winter coat to pianos, to a brand new car (for both her and me) this year. dsc04574At the same time there have been fewer and fewer layers covering the myth of Christmas or Grandpa Christmas. Especially after my daughter and I came to Nova Scotia, Canada, we are exploring the tradition and culture of Atlantic Christmas Seasons. However, nobody among our three has pointed the secret out.

         Keeping it silently and harmoniously has become part of the life we all built up particularly for our daughter (though my husband and I divorced several years ago). No matter at her childhood, at teens, 20s, 30s…… and 80s, she can always ask: “Mom and Dad do you know if Grandpa Santa will send me gifts this year?” We will continuously answer her: “Grandpa Santa always knows if you have been good or naughty.”

        The secret, the mysterious feelings and our love will be with her for long.

Zhou Hui, in Halifax, Nova Scotia

Dec. 18, 2008

 

The Halifax Explosion: History Brought to Life

        In fall 2007, my daughter and I moved into an apartment building in the north end of Halifax. Our deck faces the Shipyard and overlooks HalifaxHarbor. Watching the gentle waves, the sea gulls, the vessels and the sun hanging above the water is becoming one of my favorite pastimes. I am originally from Beijing and seldom had the opportunity to be such close to a harbor.

        One sunny morning, I stood on the deck, sipping a cup of coffee while enjoying the view of the the-view-of-halifax-explosion-site-from-the-building-i-live-3215-veith-streetHarbor. My eyes once again touched the area to the north of the Shipyard and my heart skipped a beat. Was it the devastated area around “Pier 6” where the Halifax Explosion happened on December 6, 1917? Had the Richmond Railyards been located there? I hurriedly began digging through my unpacked boxes and pulled out a book called “Explosion in HalifaxHarbor,” which I bought two years ago. A map in the book confirmed my feelings that I was looking at the exact site. 

As a Chinese, I had never even heard of the Halifax Explosion before moved to Nova Scotia. However, a very fortuitous series of events brought me to the history.

When my daughter and I immigrated to Canada, we first stayed in Wolfville, a landscape-like smallthe-newspaper-and-the-photo-on-the-wall5 town belonging to the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia. We lived in a house with Ms. Janette Snooks, a nurse and community caregiver. The house had its bedrooms upstairs with living-room and kitchen on the ground floor. One day I noticed that a framed newspaper article with a gentleman’s picture in it hung on the wall in the turning corner of the stairs. In the living-room, two pictures particularly caught my eye, too. One was the same gentleman in the framed article. Another was of a woman. Out of curiosity, I stood at the stair corner and read the article.

It described the most significant explosion in widespread devastation, killed about 2000 people and 9000 injured in the blast in HalifaxHarbor on December 6, 1917. The gentleman in the photograph was Vincent Coleman who worked at the Richmond Railyards. It was only a few hundred feet from Pier 6, where a vessel called Mont Blancloaded over 2,900 tons of explosives and flammable material drifted ashore in flames after colliding with another vessel, the Imo. Warned of Mont Blanc’s explosive cargo, Vincent turned to his telegraph key to stop incoming trains. His message was sent out just in time and a train was successfully stopped outside of Halifax before the Explosion.

vincent-colemanThanks to Vincent’s message, the Canadian railway system responded quickly to the disaster and sent relief trains with medical help to the ravaged city. Vincent Coleman’s body and belongings were later recovered and he was named a hero for his quick thinking.

I could not help but to ask Janette who Vincent was. She told me he was her late maternal grandfather. The woman in the living-room picture was his wife, Frances. In 1917 Janette’s mother was just a baby. She and Frances were two of the survivors. Because of Janette the history of the Halifax Explosion suddenly seemed very real to me and was brought to my life accidentally! After listening to her story, I felt differently whenever passed the picture frame in the turning corner.

glasnerJanette also showed me a book, “The Halifax Explosion”. The author interviewed her for the book. Opening the book, I saw the same photos of Vincent and Frances in the living-room. I glanced at the book’s dedication, “For my husband, Doug” without paying much attention to this at the time.

I wished I had the book, so looked for it in Wolfville, but did not find it. By chance I bought another informative book, “Explosion in HalifaxHarbour” by David B. Flemming though it was expensive for me.

A short time later, I was told my Masters supervisor, Doug’s wife, Joyce had written a book about the Explosion. Having checked, I ensured the one Janette had loaned me was, in fact, by Joyce Glasner. The dedication, “For my husband, Doug” I had not paid much attention last time really made sense to me this time. Finally I met Joyce and she sent me a copy of her book. Opening the cover, I found I owned a signed copy.

Amazingly, the experience with Janette and Joyce brought me closer to the history and made me more familiar with the Halifax Explosion than what I, a person from China, had ever expected. I could not help, once again, but felt more about the history especially after I moved to the north end of Halifax and found most of the historical sites could visit by walking.

I once stopped over at MaritimeMuseum of the Atlantic an entire afternoon one day to visit the exhibition of Halifax Explosion, to watch the video with the horrible pictures of the ruins and to listen to the pitiful description.

the-clock-facing-to-the-explosion-site-stopped-to-9052From the corner of Barrington Street and Duke Street, I looked up to the north face of the City Hall Clock. It was permanently stopped to 9:05 a.m., the time that the original clock stopped as a result of the Explosion.

the-piece-of-metal-from-mont-blanc-remains-flown-through-the-glass-window-and-then-embedded-above-the-door-in-the-inside-wall-of-the-porch-of-st-paul_s-anglican-church1I quietly opened the front door of St. Paul’s Anglican Church and found the piece of metal from Mont Blanc remains flown through the glass window and then embedded above the door in the inside wall of the porch.

dec-29-2007-snow-storm-003I have walked several times around the neighborhood where I live to visit the historical sites-the churches, schools, buildings and streets……

I reviewed the name list of those who lost their lives in the Halifax Explosion, I found two of them were from China.

dec-6-2007-the-halifax-explosion-memory-001I attended the 90th annual memorial service at Fort NeedhamMemorial Park on December 6, 2007. On that day, I met two of the survivors who are at their late 90s, while I also saw a lot of teenagers and youngsters standing with the grey or white hair in the cold and chilly December wind in memory of the event. As only Chinese, my attendance caused people’s curiosity and attention. Some gaze made me feel I was an alien. Probably they were reasonable –it was really gold-board-dec-6-2007-the-halifax-explosion-memory-0121weird–a Chinese woman joining such local event with mostly local Canadians. However, I have stories related to the Explosion, which they did not know, which I like to share with them. My understanding of Halifax is more than they expected that a Chinese woman should have, and my feelings to Halifax are far beyond the whirl and the noises, the peace and the beauty which they feel and I feel everyday.

End

   

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

 This essay was published at Magazine, China Surveying and Mapping

Volume108 (2007 Jun): page 74-77

      圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾(St. Margaret’s Bay)是加拿大大西洋地区、努瓦·斯苟莎省(Nova Scotia)的许多海湾之一。从努瓦·斯苟莎省会哈利法克斯(Halifax)市沿103高速公路西行约20分钟,圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾便出现在眼前。派吉斯·寇夫路(Peggy’s Cove Road)和圣·玛哥瑞斯路(St. Margaret’s Road)一左一右蜿蜒在海湾的两岸。

圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾是离哈利法克斯Halifax最近的海湾。尽管它不是港湾,但可停泊吃水位很深的大船。如遇特殊情况,船不能停靠在哈利法克斯, 可转停在圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾。它因此有很重要的地理学意义。它的出口面对大西洋,但是内陆海,且具有与其它海湾不同的特殊性、重要性。我的朋友鲍博(Bob)住在那里,我的周末几乎全是在那里度过的,所以有机会接触和亲身体会圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾。它尽管小但是无论在加拿大,还是在世界上都很独特。

圣·玛哥瑞斯 海湾和大西洋之间的莎汀岛朝向大西洋的一面。岛的左侧被海浪冲刷得几乎秃了,正因为此,它成为圣·玛哥瑞斯 海湾的保护神                                                       一个称作莎汀(Shut-in)的大岛屿像门户把守在大西洋和圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾之间,当大西洋上季风肆虐,海浪咆哮时,海湾里的海水依旧温柔地舔着沙滩,轻轻地叩击大大小小的岩石。圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾和大西洋之间的莎汀岛成为屏障保护着圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾。

世界著名的旅游圣地派吉斯·寇夫灯塔(Peggy’s Cove Lighthouse)面向大西洋坐落在圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾的入口。那里的海水远没有圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾的驯服。

大印第安岛(Big Indian Island)是海湾美丽的景致之一。但是一定要等到低潮时才能步行登上岛屿。因为只有在海湾的水位退到最低时,从印第安·普印特(Indian Point)通往圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾大印第安岛的一段沙滩才露出水面。而且一定要赶在涨潮之前回来,除非你愿意过一下从大印第安岛游回来的瘾,或耐心等到下一个低潮(一般是12小时以后)。

st margarets bay 177st margarets bay 130加拿大感恩节(Thanksgiving Day)长周末的一个早晨,恰是海水最低潮,我和鲍博在那段沙滩上留下两串湿漉漉的脚印、穿过一片树林去看圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾。尽管已是秋天,那天的海湾非常暖和。清澈的海水在太阳的照射下闪烁、蒸腾,天空极其蓝。微风拂面,带着海特有的味儿和温暖。走在海滩上,不时弯腰捡拾贝壳和石子,我竟觉得热了。我们坐在岩石上,面对海湾,背靠树林。目及对岸的山坡和两岸之间的小岛,捕捉欧鸟从海面掠过的身影,迎送张满风帆的小船由远而近又由近而远。远去了城市的嘈杂,忘却了昨天的烦恼,一味地沉浸在这耀眼的宁静中、呼吸海的气味……。我想我很幸运也很奢侈,因为我享有这阳光、这温暖、这海湾、这宁静……和这并非人人都能拥有的圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾的金秋。

冰河时代(11,000年前),这里矗立着巨大的冰川。近代,印第安人曾在海湾以打鱼、捕海豹为生。这也是大印第安岛地名的由来。后来的欧洲移民迫使他们背井离乡。20世纪初渔民在海湾捕捞吞那鱼(Tuna)出口日本。日本人享受了吞那鱼寿司,而圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾的吞那鱼现在几乎绝迹。我想这恐怕是美丽的海湾历史中不堪回首的一页。

其实海湾只是这里人们生活的一部分。圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾实际上是个地区。它即属于省会哈利法克斯地区又是乡村或渔村。渔民大多以捕捞龙虾营生。邻居与邻居住的相隔一段距离,不像在城里拥挤得一家挨着一家。有些人在城里工作,每天往返于家和上班地点的时间一般需要一个多小时。但是人们宁愿住在圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾享受大自然所给与的四季,春、夏、秋和冬。前三季尤其物以稀为贵。因为在这里要有近半年的冬季。

spring 2008 023春季,“清明”前后当我们在北京“种瓜种豆”时,这里的土还没有完全解冻。已经是5月,枝头的芽苞还睡眼惺忪,却是人们剪枝、修整的好时机。而6月才是的种植季节——在自家的园子里播种、购买花、草和蔬菜苗移栽到地里。真正的夏天要从7月开始算。

最早可以欣赏的野花应该是蒲公英。早春,人们用它的嫩叶做沙拉(Salad),我却一年到头在这里享用蒲公英。就是到了深秋,仍然可以采摘到嫩叶。一年三季鲜花(种植的和野生的)不断,从来没有让人寂寞的时候。

夏天,人们在海湾的沙滩上日光浴和游泳。由于夏季不长,稍纵即逝。人们便迫不及待地奔向海滩,投入大海的怀抱。我曾几次在圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾游泳,而只有一次觉得水还不算太凉。当畅游在清澈见底的海湾、尽情地感受大海和夏天时,谁还会在乎水温?孩子们在水面看到海底的螃蟹、贝类和寄居蟹便一口气潜下去捕捉。他们很少把猎物带回家,而是把它们放回大海。一直就没有暖够的海水到9月当学生返校之际已经开始降温。

也许是为了有意地把夏天拉长,人们称9月22或23日后为秋天。这正是我们的农历“秋分”(9月22或23昼夜平分)。还有巧合的是加拿大的感恩节是在每年10月的第二个星期一。今年在10月8日,恰好是我们的节气“寒露”。它比美国的感恩节(每年的11月的第四个星期四)早近2个月。10月初的感恩节好像是专门为加拿大大西洋地区或圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾设的似的。感恩节前后是收获的季节。人们忙着摘苹果、刨土豆、掰玉米、收南瓜和多种蔬菜。随处可见大大小小的南瓜“展览”。丰收的南瓜绝大多数南瓜是为万圣节(10月31日)准备的。鲍博家的土豆全都出土、入库。三棵苹果树今年一共结了大约十个苹果(去年接了不下千余)。玉米早已被我们和美洲浣熊(North America Raccoon),鲍博家菜园里的常客之一,分享。拉秧的黄瓜依然碧绿,樱桃西红柿还在不断挂果,橙红的南瓜摆放在他今年搭建的一个中国农村式的小凉亭下。亭里还挂着阴干的辛香植物,如薄荷(mint)、茴香(dill)、鼠尾草(sage)和其它多种我必须查字典才能知道中文名字的植物(用于做菜的调料)。晚熟的耐寒作物或蔬菜在地里依然郁郁葱葱……。

st margarets bay 080 而枫树在此时也凑着热闹红得恰到好处,鲜红、猩红、橙红、淡红……把圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾的秋渲染得最像加拿大的秋。我想,这是再好不过的时机来感恩大自然的馈赠,感恩辛勤的劳作和尽情感受圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾独特的秋。

此时,我想起女儿小时唱的一首儿歌“小鸟小鸟落落,请来这儿唱歌,这里的风景最美,有山、有树、有河……”。是啊,我的中国朋友,一旦有机会来努瓦·斯苟莎(Nova Scotia),无论如何一定要从你匆忙的行程中挤出点儿时间到这里,圣·玛哥瑞斯海湾坐坐。

Defensive Driving and Defensive Walking 

                                                               

The night on Nov. 17, 2008 after work, I drove in Halifax.

 

It was my third road training with an instructor at Ha’s Driver School, and my first time of running a vehicle in the darkness. When we were closing to Sackville Street on Barrington Street, the instructor showed me the site where a young woman was struck under a dump truck when she was crossing the street that very samemorning. The first response of mine was if my daughter was at home. Yes, she was. One hour ago we talked on the phone. Although I confirmed and ensured my daughter was safe, the news had made the hair on the back of my neck stand up. I felt extremely horrible that life was taken away in the blink of an eye! However, if the driver checked one more time, if the woman checked one more time, the tragedy might never have happened.

 

The rest of the driving at that night was filled with more “mirror, signal and shoulder check”. My eyes had never been as busy as they were. “Defensive driving” hit every object it could reach, and its echoes never died away in the dark as if the driver school teacher emphasized it again and again during the 25-hour in-house education sources. By the end, the instructor summarized and commented on my night performance-I did not see people emerged from the back of a parked car once, I almost missed a “stop sign” once, I skipped “mirror check” twice before brakes, I ignored road signs more than three times, I did not read the road ahead when I made turns, I should be much more alert than I had been while driving……All in all, to me there would be a long way to go in terms of a good driver and then a defensive driver which is my goal. 

 

Honestly, the original reason why I decided to go back to a driving school was for car insurance. When I was thinking about buying a car, I checked with insurance companies, the insurance to me without any insurance record and driving education in Canada would be more than $3000 a year though I was issued a class 5 Nova Scotia driver licence in 2005. Therefore, I registered at the driving school in October. Now looking back the education and trainings obtained, the value is much more than its price, $595, and the significance is far beyond getting a low insurance.

 

In addition, the necessity taking the education, or returning to a driving school may not be just to me only.

 

One of my colleagues, I am sure she has been driving a car or cars for many years, told me that she would like to go back to a driving school to refresh or update the knowledge and improve her driving techniques if she had time. If it became one of the priorities, she would do it soon, I believe.

 

One of my Chinese fellows and good friends, whom I met at the Kentville Research Station of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 2005, offered me rides when I went home sometimes since we both worked at the station and lived in Wolfville. First time when I showed him Winter Street where the house I lived located, he hit the brake and stopped the car just in the middle of the street near Winter Street. I thought I interrupted him, so he stopped (parked) suddenly. However it happened identically at the second time. This time I could not help but asked him why his curb-side wheels were about two meters away from the street curb, instead of within or close to 15 centimetres according to the Nova Scotia Driver’s Handbook. I could barely stand this though he was a good friend, and was also surprised how he passed the driving road test and received a driver licence of Nova Scotia. He perhaps was terribly embarrassed because of my outspokenness. However, it is the rule everybody must obey for the safety of lives, his, mine and others (My dear friend, if you read here, please do not be mad at me).

 

There have been a lot of stories of conflicts on road heart from people around me.  I also saw some drivers driving as if they were number one on the road drove beside me. I did encounter pedestrians showing up on the street at very wrong places when I drove. The tragedy that happened on the corner of Barrington/Sackville Street on the 17th of Nov. has not been forgotten.

 

Therefore, I would like to pack defensive driving and defensive walking in a box as one of my Christmas gifts because I am starting to play two roles, in other words, I will be the both, a driver and a pedestrian on streets after I have a car.

 

 

Nov. 22, 2008, Halifax

 

从英文名翻译想到的

从英文名翻译想到的

  

       

我不知道是在那个朝代我们中国人将英文名John翻译成“约翰”的。我们好像已经很适  应冠John这个极其普通的英文名字以“约翰”,而且似乎从来就没质疑过。类似的例子还有我们将Mary念成“玛丽”,将Paul发音成“保罗”,将加拿大的城市Vancouver叫“温哥华”Montreal赋予“蒙特利尔”之称。仔细琢磨“加拿大”是否有更接近Canada的念法? 

 

有一天我和一个加拿大朋友谈起“尼古拉斯·凯奇”,他很长时间没有反应过来我说的是谁,最后我不得不搜肠刮肚地找出尼古拉斯·凯奇主演的一些电影情节,他才恍然大悟我说的是Nicolas Cage。如果写成中文,其更接近原文发音的应该是“尼古拉斯·凯至”。我曾在Saint Mary’s University读硕士学位,它的中文名:“圣·玛丽”大学。自从我的“尼古拉斯·凯奇”故事发生后,我怎么都觉得它应该叫“圣·麦瑞” 大学,John和“宙恩”贴边,Paul称做“炮” (其“l” 不发音),Vancouver应该是“皖库斡”, Montreal-“蒙垂欧”,而Canada为什么不可念做“开拿大”。这些貌似生僻的中文译名,其发音不更接近英文原名么?

 

 

有的英文名是很难和中文对上号的。我最近为一本书所感动,作者Paul Chiasson,中文book-of-the-island-of-seven-cities2名保罗·恰森,书名The Island of Seven Cities (中文译为“七城岛”)。作者以独特的思维方式和手笔揭示给众人他的发现:加拿大Nova Scotia省的Cape Breton岛上的历史遗迹-存在于意大利航海家哥伦布(Christopher Columbus)据传发现美洲新大陆(1492)之前。他经过查阅大量历史资料,包括当时各个国家航海技术水平,推论这片历史遗迹很有可能属于中国人。我试着为他的姓Chiasson(源于法文)寻找比“恰森”更合适的中文字,发现“桑”比“森”更接近原发音。而Chia如果按照我们的汉语拼音规则应该拼写成chei,遗憾的是我没找到与其相对应的中文字。所以Chiasson就只好还是“恰森”或“恰桑”。 

 

我们将英文名义译、音译相混用的情况也时有发生。这种译法不论不类且费解。比如上面Paul Chiasson书中提到的地名Nova Scotia被译为“新科西亚”(“恰森与七城岛”,李文政,«人民日报» 2007-08-01 第16版)。Nova无疑是New-中文意思“新”,这里做义译。但后面的Scotia显然是音译(是否接近原发音且不论)。当我第一次看到这个译名时丝毫没有辨别出它就是Nova Scotia。而我恰恰就住在Nova Scotia的一个城市,一天里恐怕有无数机会碰到或用到这个名字。Scotia的意思是“苏格兰”。如果也被义译,那么Nova Scotia的全名应该是“新苏格兰”。对于我们“新苏格兰”翻译正确、无可指摘。令人担心的是有多少英文名字是被义译的?而且有多少英文名可以被义译?如果我们可以将加拿大最东端的省Newfoundland音译为“纽芬兰”而不是“新芬兰”,为什么不遵循同一准则而将Nova Scotia音译成“努瓦·斯苟莎”? 

 

最近一篇有关重金属汞污染的报导中文译文(翻译:李雪玉,http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_490dfe9901000a5x.html)是这样开场的:“CBC新闻2007年8月15日,科学家说……在努纳武高纬北极地区雷索卢特湾附近的湖泊中汞含量呈现上升趋势。来自环境加拿大的科学家在近20年的时间里对雷索卢特湾以外的十几个湖泊进行研究,雷索卢特湾位于康沃利斯岛伊魁特市北部1570公里。研究者也在观察常年栖息在这些内陆湖泊中的北极鲑鱼……”。文中涉及了四个地名:1)努纳武高纬北极地区、2)雷索卢特湾、3)康沃利斯岛和4)伊魁特市。除了“高纬北极地区”和“环境加拿大”可以推论故事可能发生在加拿大或加拿大附近的北极地区。而这4个中文译名,至少对我来说,因为没有英文原文可参考而使原文的信息价值大打折扣。也许是我过于缺乏地理知识、孤陋寡闻,且在加拿大逗留的时间太短?为此我专门请教了一个在加拿大生活了多年的中国朋友,对该译名他也不知所云。我不甘心,又拜访了一个加拿大朋友,他对我提供的这4个名字的准确的中文发音没有任何反应。“金山词霸”词典上没有它们对应的英文名,从Google网站的地图上也找不到它们的踪影。我相信原作者的初衷是报告汞污染发生的水域,并提醒人们钓鱼时应避免该水域或不食该水域中的鱼。而译者的意图是将英文转化成中文以便于中国人获得这一信息。无论作者还是译者恐怕都不会想到带着他们良好初衷和意图的信息因为这4个地点的中文译名走进了死胡同。而文章的主要价值恰恰体现在这4个地名上。另外译文中提到“环境加拿大”。什么是“环境加拿大”?我猜测是Environment Canada-加拿大联邦政府的环境部或环境局。但是假如读者是一个不熟悉加拿大的中国人,他或她将如何诠释“环境加拿大”?

 

……

 

当我们翻译原文名字时,译名出现时给对方的往往是声觉效应而不是视觉效应(尽管给我们的可能是声觉加视觉效应)。因此,尊重原语言的发音而翻译其名字(人名、地名)将便于我们自己使用和与他人交流;译名的发音准确、或接近准确比它的形象是否适合我们的惯用写法更重要;而音译比义译更可能和现实;一篇文章中在最初中文译名出现时傍以原文名字具有参考价值。 

 

当然由于中文属于独特的语言体系,在国际交流中一定的语言障碍可能会长期或永远存在下去,但是有些障碍,比如在此谈到的译名障碍是可以经过规范和改进加以淡化而使交流更容易。毕竟今天的中国已不再是当初将John译成“约翰”的中国。我们的国际交流已渗透到各个领域:如政治、经济、军事、贸易、科学和文化。我相信我们的语言翻译,在此特指名字的翻译也在改进。我想我们身在国外可能对这种语言、文化的碰撞体会更深。

 

 

2007年9月4日星期二,于HALIFAX

 

你啊,“洋姜”

  你啊,“洋姜”

 

    有我这一把年纪的中国人,大概没有几个不知道、没吃过“洋姜(图中下为洋姜)”,或dsc04931“鬼子姜”的。记得小时候姥姥家院子里有块地盘属于“洋姜”。我们在深秋收获“洋姜”,确切地讲是收获它的地下块茎。那喜悦不亚于北美人收获马铃薯――土豆。因为埋在地下,其地上部分又貌不惊人,就总让人有探索秘密的感觉。又因为它的块茎长得分散,挖得离地上茎已经挺远了,还能零零星星地发现小块的“洋姜”,因此也就总能让人兴奋、惊喜。“洋姜”最后都腌成了咸菜,且从来都是供不应求。也就常和姥爷光顾北京的“六必居”或“天源酱园”去买那里的“酱洋姜”。

  剩在地下的块茎,经过一冬的休眠,它的嫩芽便顶着春天的温暖、伸着懒腰从土里钻了出来。夏天,除了绿叶,它没有什么特别吸引人的地方。而到秋天,当其它花都凋谢了,它却绽放异彩-杏黄色的、单薄的小花随风摇摆,且开始孕育地下块茎。这是我记忆里的“洋姜”。

     在中国,但凡冠以“洋”的东西,一定是舶来品――“洋取灯(火柴)”、“洋抢”、“洋烟”、“洋酒”、“洋文”和“洋人”。“洋姜”想必在此之列(原产于北美,菊科、向日葵属,Heliantthus tuberosus L., Jerusalem Artichoke,多年生草木植物,耐寒、少病虫害且高产)。我本该知道的,但却从来没感觉过“洋姜”属于这一族。尤其作为远离故土的老北京,当我意外地在加拿大的一个菜市场(名叫Pete’s Frootique)发现“洋姜”时,这化为异物、化为稀罕物的“故知”勾起我儿时温馨的记忆,让我想念北京,怀念故去的姥姥、姥爷,父母,还有那伴我长大的小院儿。因此当年的秋季,我将从Pete’s Frootiue买来的“洋姜”留了几块做为种子试着种在了朋友家的院里(我还不属于有房有地族)。

     盼了一冬,我的“洋姜”终于在加拿大大西洋地区迟到的春天从土里拱出了新芽。夏天它还是那样貌不惊人;秋季单薄的小花依旧,点缀着蓝天,也给大西洋一点金黄。我耐着性子等到了收获时节。那是11月初的一个清晨。我早早地起床,潦草地喝了杯咖啡,提起一个篮筐,不等朋友叫我拿上工具(铁叉)便迫不及待直奔菜园-刨“洋姜”去了。几叉下去那不拘形状、湿润的、带着泥土芬芳的“洋姜”已是一大片展现在我的眼前。这里显然是“洋姜”的乐土,不然它们怎么能长得如此健壮?大块的足有一磅,收获是我播种的2030倍。

     我想“洋姜”不屑弄清大西洋岸边这块土地和姥姥家院里土壤的国籍的。只要条件适宜,它们便可扎根、发芽、生长,延续生命。此时,我真的领略了“洋姜”的内涵,同时感慨,我们(生活在国外的中国人)似乎有点像“洋姜”:长途跋涉,投生于另一片土地。原产于北美的“洋姜”现已几乎分布(被动)于世界各地,我们炎黄子孙不也是么(主动)?倘若“洋姜”可以感知、可以思考,它一定眷恋故土,就像我们牵挂着、感受着祖国。这种感受和牵挂因为我们远离祖国,或许变得格外的深和异乎寻常的切……

 此文发表在“东岸中文报”2008年五月刊

 

 

From Heritage to Heritage

From Heritage to Heritage

  

As I have learned, people in China usually have heard about British Columbia and Ontario more than Nova Scotia. Halifax, too, is far less popular to most Chinese people than Vancouver, Toronto, and Ottawa. I had been one of those Chinese who knew nothing about Nova Scotia until one day in 2004, my feet touched the land, and I was thoroughly embraced with the waters, the woods and the fields, the colour, the sound and the smell. I was especially attracted by the stories related to its history – the unique treasure in Canada.

 

Without knowing its history, I would have no feelings to the word “Acadian”; I probably would never stop with intention on Barrington Street in Halifax and look up to the north face of the City Hall Clock which was permanently stopped to 9:05 a.m.; I would never think about the significance behind the beauty of the New Ross Farm, the charm of St. Margaret’s Bay, the well-preserved properties of the Annapolis Royal, “The Island of Seven Cities”- Mr. Paul Chiasson’s discovery of the remains of a possible ancient Chinese settlement on Cape Breton Island, and the scenic waterfront of Halifax Harbour……which are our heritages in Nova Scotia.

 

What I have seen and felt in Nova Scotia reminds me of the ancient City Wall and Gates in Beijing, which were built in the Ming Dynasty (1368 to 1644). Sixteen city gates connected the city wall with Inner City and Outer City of Beijing. Most gates were demolished in the 1960s-1970s because the government wanted to develop or rebuild the old city, starting with an underground railway system right beneath the Wall and Gates of the Inner City. I fortunately still remember the Wall and the Gates, since I was born in Beijing in 1950s. My sister, six years younger than I, has very dim impression about them. My daughter never had any opportunity to view their majesty and magnificence. Not only the City Wall and Gates, but also other historical buildings, such as Si-he Yard (the unique style of houses/yards in Beijing, and  most of Hu-tong (the system of Beijing city streets) have been replaced by huge concrete apartment or commercial buildings.

 

Perhaps the impression about Beijing as a well-developed and quite modern city, as shown during the Beijing Olympics in August 2008, is still remaining. However, there is little left for people in the world to feel and enjoy its ancient rhythm, the heritage identities, and the taste of real Beijing. The demolition of historical structures was one of unforgivable human mistakes, and a huge tragedy to the history of Beijing, China, and the world.

 

I worry about less and less heritages left for our future generations, no matter where heritage is wiped out amidst the conflict between development and the protection of historical properties. Without the concern and worry, I would not be easily brought to a halt by some pictures, books, and a talk between walkers and two members of Heritage Trust of Nova Scotia, which happened just outside of the entrance of the Halifax Farmers Market on one of the busy and beautiful Saturday mornings in October, 2008. The members of the Heritage Trust were worried because the Armour Group had applied to completely demolish two buildings in the central block of Historic Properties: the wooden Peter Martin Building at 1870 Upper Water Street and the Imperial Oil Building at 1860 Upper Water Street. In addition, almost all but the facades of other heritage buildings, the Fishwick Express Building at 1861 Hollis Street, the Harrington Building at Hollis Street, would be demolished in Halifax……After having listened for awhile, I joined the talk and told them the stories of City Wall and Gates in Beijing. I also voluntarily signed their petition and promised them I would write to Halifax Mayor Peter Kelly and Members of Regional Council.

 

Halfway through this essay, my writing was stopped by a terrible cold. When I had energy to go back to the essay, I discovered the news on Page 1 of the Metro, October 22, 2008, that Regional Council had rejected demolition of a block of heritage buildings on the Halifax waterfront. I was extremely glad to hear that and believed the two members of Heritage Trust of Nova Scotia, whom I met on that Saturday, must have a big relief while learning the good news.

 

Could we have a break? Heritage Trust of Nova Scotia president Philip Pacey said he was “absolutely delighted ” by council’s decision, but there was still work to do because Armour owns the buildings and had applied for a demolition permit for one building and holds a permit to demolish another. It seems there is no break for Heritage Trust of Nova Stotia, for Mayor Peter Kelly, and Members of Regional Council, nor for people like me.

 

Therefore, I keep writing, starting this essay with the story of broken Heritages in Beijing, China and closing it with the unfinished story of other Heritages in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

 

 

-October 25, 2008, Halifax, Nova Scotia

 

                           走进历史: 哈利法克斯港湾大爆炸 

                                               

     今年(2007年)是哈利法克斯港湾大爆炸(Halifax Explosion90周年。1917126日(第一次世界大战期间)早晨905爆炸发生在哈利法克斯港湾。这是在原子弹发明之前人类历史上最大的人为爆炸事件。爆炸波及整个港湾和它两岸城市哈利法克斯和鞑茂斯(Dartmouth)。方圆几十公里的房屋被摧毁,80公里以外的城镇戳柔(Truro)房屋的玻璃被震碎。几百公里以外可以测到爆炸的震波。哈利法克斯城市中离爆炸地点最近的地区(Richmond & the Devastated Area)被夷为平地。当幸存者从震撼中苏醒无法辨认哪儿曾是他们的家。有的人成了家里唯一的幸存者。爆炸夺去了近2000人的生命(许多人是死在自己的房子里),9000人受伤或终身致残。他们包括城市居民、士兵、海员、消防员、警察、工人和政府官员。

 dsc06135

     哈利法克斯港是世界上最好、最深和最大的天然海港之一。第一次世界大战使在20世纪初刚刚起步的海湾城市哈利法克斯措手不及地迎来了前所未有的人潮、思潮、繁忙和商机。相对于其它港湾,它更易于泊船和防御。因此,战争期间的民用、商用和军用船只停泊并频繁地出入哈利法克斯港湾即给她带来发展机会,也由于始料不及的海上交通需求而潜在危机。

 

          Mont-Blanc是一艘驶自美国纽约的法国货船,停靠在哈利法克斯港湾外准备入港。与其它船只不同的是它没有装载任何民用物资或商用物资,而是满载一船炸药和易燃品(TNT、苦味酸、干苦味酸、强棉药和苯,约2,900吨)。为了避免德国海军的注意力并防备其袭击,船上没有任何危险爆炸物旗帜标志。1917126日早晨Mont-Blanc准许驶入哈利法克斯港湾。除了Mont-Blanc的船员以外,没人知道一只满载炸药的船只正驶入繁忙的哈利法克斯港湾并汇入护航船队。Imo是一只超速迎面驶向Mont-Blanc的标有‘比利时救济品’的民用船。两船在海港最窄的航道上遭遇。经过了一番信号(汽笛)交流,据推测,其共同的错误判断最终致使Imo恰巧撞在Mont-Blanc载有苯和具有化学及不稳定性的苦味酸的部位845两船相撞产生的火花点燃了Mont-Blanc上的可燃化学物质。大火引起的浓烟高达3600米。许多行人因为Mont-Blanc上的大火、浓烟而驻足观望。政府官员采取紧急措施去现场调查。消防员、海军士兵前去营救。人们在不知情、不意识大火背后还有更致命的危机的情况下趋向灭顶之灾。Mont-Blanc船上的船员向前来营救的人员用法语解释,没人能听懂他们在喊什么,而且为时已太晚。90435爆炸终于不可避免。Mont-Blanc被炸成数千碎片抛向几公里以外。美丽的海港瞬间成为废墟。

 vincent-coleman-at-maritime-museum-of-the-atlantic

     爆炸前,温森特·寇曼(Vincent Coleman,一位Richmond 火车站的工作人员预料到可能的爆炸,并果断地向各个火车站及时发送电文,成功地阻止了一辆驶向哈利法克斯的客车。也正是由于他发送的电文,使加拿大铁路系统及时反应,当天便迅速从努瓦·斯苟莎(Nova Scotia)省的其它地区和邻省调集6辆救援列车解救哈利法克斯。爆炸后人们在车站发现了温森特的遗体和随身遗物。温森特工作和牺牲的Richmond火车站和它所属的Richmond & the Devastated 地区离爆炸地点最近。爆炸后废墟一片。重建的地区成为哈利法克斯城市北端的一部分。哈利法克斯大爆炸纪念钟塔就坐落在附近。除了纪念钟塔,整个城区有21处与大爆炸有关的纪念场馆供人们悼念遇难者,纪念这一罕见的人为灾祸。温森特的照片和他的遗物就保存在港口的海洋博物馆里。

 

     而我第一次见到文森特的照片是在詹妮特(Janette S.)女士的家里。这张照片使我开始知道哈利法克斯海港大爆炸,并从此引出一系列的有关故事。

 

the-newspaper-and-the-photo-on-the-wall3     我和女儿在20052月移居到加拿大。落脚在努瓦·斯苟莎(Nova Scotia)省美丽的沃缶(Wolfville)小镇。我们和詹妮特住在一栋两层的房子里。楼下是厨房和起居室,楼上是卧室。住进去不久,我发现楼梯的拐角处挂有一篇镶在镜框里的从报纸上裁剪下来的文章,文章上附有一位男士的照片。报纸已经发黄。有一天得机会我站在拐角读了这篇文章。它讲述了1917126日的哈利法克斯海港大爆炸和温森特·寇曼舍身救列车的故事。他被人们称作哈利法克斯大爆炸的英雄。我就是从这儿知道哈利法克斯大爆炸的。这时我想起起居室的墙上有一张和报纸上一样、放大的温森特的照片和一位女士的照片。好奇心趋势我一定要知道詹妮特保存那张报纸的缘由。

 

 janette-my-daughter-and-me    詹妮特是个护士,在镇上的一家养老院工作。工作很忙。我们很少有机会坐下聊天。她休息日的一个晚上,我们终于有机会坐在一起,便聊起了墙上的报纸和照片。詹妮特告诉我温森特·寇曼是她的外祖父,那位女士是她的外祖母,弗昂茜斯·寇曼(Frances Coleman)。大爆炸发生时,詹妮特的母亲只有一岁,是幸存者之一。这些照片就是她留给詹妮特的。我尽管料到了温森特可能是她的什么亲人,但还是震惊了-哈利法克斯海港大爆炸的这段历史竟离我这么近,这么可触及!由于詹妮特,这段曾经和我没有任何关系的历史悲剧和人为灾祸开始和我有了牵连并逐渐走进了我的生活。当我再次上、下楼从温森特的照片经过时,我的感受不一样了。

 

     那天晚上詹妮特还介绍给我一本书,书名“哈利法克斯的大爆炸(The Halifax Explosion)”。作者曾经就为写这本书采访过她。书的扉页上的一行字“此书奉献给我的丈夫道格(Doug)”并没引起我特殊的兴趣。我通读了这本书,从中了解到更多情节和真实故事。我希望能有这本书,便到镇上的书店去找。书已脱销。我便买了另一本描写哈利法克斯大爆炸的书,“发生在哈利法克斯海港的大爆炸(Explosion in Halifax Harbour)。作者戴维德·弗莱明(David B. Flemming)

 

     有一天,我和学友,戴碧(Debbie)谈起哈利法克斯大爆炸和我读的有关的书。戴碧问我是否记得作者的名字,并告诉我我的硕士学位导师道格的妻子宙伊斯·葛莱斯娜(Joyce Glasner)写了一本有关哈利法克斯大爆炸的书。我当时实在记不起作者的名字了。记英文名字始终对我是件不易的事。晚上到家后赶紧翻出那两本书,发现詹妮特借给我的那本书的作者正是宙伊斯·葛莱斯娜。当我重读扉页上的那一行字“此书奉献给我的丈夫道格(Doug)”时,我意识到我和哈利法克斯大爆炸又多了一层关系。之后,我的导师将我介绍给他的妻子宙伊斯。她送给我一本有她签名的“哈利法克斯的大爆炸(The Halifax Explosion)”。

 

     由于女儿从蒙·圣·温森特(Mount St. Vincent)大学转到圣·麦瑞(St. Mary)大学,我们搬到了市内维斯街(Veith Street)上的一座只有6户人家的小楼里。小楼是上世纪60年代建的。房子背靠哈利法克斯海港。一个晴朗的早上,我站在阳台上看着对面的海湾,突然觉得到我左手边不远的海域应该就是1917126Mont-Blanc船爆炸的地点。我翻开戴维德·弗莱明的“发生在哈利法克斯海港的大爆炸(Explosion in Halifax Harbour)”,书中的地图上标着的爆炸海域分明就是我现在天天都能目及的那片海!那90年前的浓烟和在爆炸中消失了的温森特工作的Richmond火车站仿佛就在我的眼前。我还发现地图上标着的21处与大爆炸有关的纪念场馆,现在对我来说大多数近得可以徒步参观。

 

     我迫不及待地要寻找书中描写的爆炸遗迹、街道、教堂、学校和地区。

     我曾用整个一个下午的时间逗留在海洋博物馆 (Maritime Museum of the Atlantic) 哈利法克斯大爆炸展室里,坐在放像机前看那些书上没有的有关大爆炸的照片,听幸存者讲述当时的惨状和震撼。不时潸然泪下或毛骨悚然。

 the-clock-facing-to-the-explosion-site-stopped-to-9051

      我在车如流的拜润彤(Barrington)大街和丢克(Duke Street)街的拐角仰望哈利法克斯市礼堂(City Hall)顶楼上为纪念哈利法克斯大爆炸而人为地将指针永远停在905的大钟。

the-piece-of-metal-from-mont-blanc-remains-flown-through-the-glass-window-and-then-embedded-above-the-door-in-the-inside-wall-of-the-porch-of-st-paul_s-anglican-church 

     我轻轻推开圣·炮斯·艾格里肯教堂(St. Paul’s Anglican Church)的大门,寻找那块爆炸时从Mont-Blanc船上崩解的、穿过教堂的玻璃窗、死死地镶在窗对面墙上的金属碎片。

 explosion-memorial-bell-tower-6the-view-of-the-halifax-explosion-site-through-the-walls-of-the-memorial-bell-tower

     今年(2007年)第一场雪后的一个早晨,天阴着。我带上照相机去拜访哈利法克斯大爆炸纪念钟塔。钟塔坐落在一个小土包上,从那儿可以直接看到爆炸发生地点。面对那片海,我想像着90年前惊魄的瞬间。寒风冻得我拿相机的手失去了知觉,周围没有任何人,我感到悲凉。

 

     我决定去参加126日的哈利法克斯大爆炸90周年纪念活动,悼念温森特·寇曼和其他遇难者、幸存者和海港的重建者。

      ……

      是啊,如果没有遇上詹妮特,如果没有读那两本书,如果没有搬到维斯街上住,我怎么能会如此在意这海港、这温和的海浪、这来往的船只、这飞掠的海鸥和这海面上闪烁的太阳?我怎么会在哈利法克斯海港一天又一天周而复始繁忙的背后感觉她的异样?

 

2007年11月10日完稿,于哈利法克斯 (November 10,2007,Halifax, Nova Scotia)

此文发表在“东岸中文报”2007年第十二月刊

 

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